I imagine the only way to know is try it, but I would be concerned that the glass face plate on a traditional CRT is quite thick -- approaching a half inch on the larger ones, and the phosphors are essentially point source emitters on the inner surface. This suggests to me there will be a lot of light dispersion and the print will be very low in detail -- but after all those words -- I could be wrong!

Have access to a Polaroid back? You could experiment by holding it against your TV (assuming you can come up with the film).