I don't think it's very useful to think of 'removing' colour. It's easier to think in terms of what is transmitted. A filter has a certain colour because that colour is what is transmitted. A red filter transmits red... and blocks the other colours.
So... a filter will simply change the relative weights of the colours. If you use a filter (say, red) then the light transmitted through that filter will be more red weighted: there will be less green, less blue... relative to red. If you want more blue and green transmitted then you could use an orange or yellow filter.
You could also do a multiple exposure: do one shorter exposure with all the colours (no filter) and then another exposure with a filter for the one you want to dominate.... that would allow you to tune the relative exposures very finely with time.
P.S. my post is at odds with Nick's assertion that a green filter will block green; not sure what Nick means, let's see...