In my opinion your problem is somewhere else; for example, in temperatures (small volume cools down easily if the drum is not preheated well enough) or chemical contamination or something like that. Have you tried using that small volume of developer but one liter of bleach, fix and wash waters? This way you could find which solution is the problem.

"the quantities listed on the tank and drum tables are the minimum needed. Some processes may require higher volumes for proper processing", I think that this line refers mostly to some very-diluted BW developers. For example, take Rodinal 1+100. Then you have some minimum volume so that you have enough development agent present. OTOH, C-41 and E6 developers are designed for continuous running machines that have quite low replenishment and they have enough developing agent to do the job even with lower volume.

I have always processed two 135-36 rolls (about the same area as with one 220) in 300 ml and never had this kind of problems (with Tetenal chems). We have even reused this 300 ml to process two rolls more. According to your message, we should get horrible results, but we really can't see any remarkable difference with our eyes. No side-to-side comparison done, though.

OTOH, Fuji's C-41 kit instructions say that you can process 72 135-36 rolls with 5 l, that is, 138 ml per two rolls. However, this supposes development time compensation, and with one-shot strategy 24 rolls is suggested per 5 l, that is, 417 ml per two rolls. This should already be almost over-careful.

So, IMO, there should be no reason why you would need 1 liter of chems for a roll of 220. I would say that 300 ml is enough. Please correct me if I'm wrong or if this is different with KODAK chems.