It can be done for black and white under the enlarger. Set one known lens, lens aperture, head height and filtration (none) and use time to fix exposure. Expose strips of film under a step wedge to figure out what the correct exposure and development is. Ideally you want a film with an upswept curve to keep highlight detail in the transparency.
If you use a colour balancing filter, or if a dichroic enlarger, the right filtration, the enlarger can also be used to duplicate colour material.
Per David's advice, Ortho Litho film, in low contrast developer allows visual development to fine tune and get you close before finessing with time vs temperature.
Litho films can also yield a very striaght line, if not upswept curve.
There is an excellent Kodak book on the issue, which I think is called Copying and Duplicating.