"We use t-stops in motion picture."
Yes. I know this. I was referring to still photography, as does the original question.
"You wont always get a 'normal' exposure from an incident meter, just 'correct' exposure for 18% grey under the given light, which can be a problem if youre shading part of the dome from the measured light, or measuring the shade, or away from the light source etc."
That is what I meant by a "normal" exposure...because that is what a "normal" exposure is.
If you are using poor technique, as described, then of course the meter will give you a foul exposure. The solution? Don't use poor technique, unless you want poor results.
"Incident meters blow hard for landscapes when you have to contend with the sky and other far away objects that put out a greater amount of light than the location you are shooting from."
Again, knowledge of how to use your meter is key. There are certainly situations in which getting a proper meter reading with an incident meter might be impossible, due to geographic locations (though IME they are quite rare)...and there is also being competent and experienced enough to recognize these situations and to either not use an incident meter in them, or to take your incident meter's reading and extrapolate how much you should adjust it.
On the other hand, an in-camera reflected meter must be adjusted for every single shot, unless every tone in the composition averages out to a mid tone, metering patterns considered. How often does this happen? IME, perhaps 2% of the time.
There are uses for both. Both require adjustment from time to time...but with an in-camera reflected meter, that "time to time" is almost every time.